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summer school programs paper homeschool writing courses summer 2014 summer vacation argumentative essay essay ghostwriter cheap essay writing service Evolution et comportement démographiques des Juifs de Tunisie sous le protectorat français (1881-1956) - Généalogie Numérique

Evolution et comportement démographiques des Juifs de Tunisie sous le protectorat français (1881-1956)

de article paru dans Population, 37e année, n°4-5, 1982 pp. 952-958.

english civil war homework help L'objectif de cette note est d'apprécier autant que faire se peut, l'évolution et les comportements démographiques de cette population. L'étude des structures démographiques, comme la répartition par âge, ou la ventilation par région, auraient pu être menée en l'état de notre documentation ; mais cela dépasserait le cadre limité que nous nous sommes fixé.

click here De 1881, date de l'instauration du protectorat, jusqu'en 1921, aucun véritable recensement de la population indigène ne fut tenté. Puis, de 1921 à 1956 (Indépendance de la Tunisie) se succédèrent six recensements généraux, en 1921, 1926, 1931, 1936, 1956. Jusqu'en 1936, les résultats étaient des plus grossiers. On se contentait de donner pour chaque groupe ethnique (1) le total d'individus et leur répartition régionale. Il faudra attendre 1946 pour qu'apparaissent des structures plus détaillées par âge et par sexe. Avant que de poursuivre, il faudrait s'interroger sur la fiabilité de ces statistiques. En fait, on peut seulement les accepter comme un ordre de grandeur. Le recensement de 1941, tout à fait particulier puisque lié au statut des Juifs, dénombrait d'ailleurs une population juive plus nombreuse que ne le laissaient penser les résultats de 1936 et 1946. Il fut précédé de menaces contre les récalcitrants et paraît à ce titre peu suspect de minorer la réalité, contrairement aux autres.

I — Evolution démographique de la population (1881-1956)

see Il est difficile d'évaluer le nombre des Juifs de Tunisie à la veille du protectorat. Un article paru dans les colonnes de cette revue (2) les estimait à un peu plus de 23 000, vers 1860, soit quelque 2% de la population tunisienne. Cette évaluation semble pêcher par défaut, car la population de certains centres paraît très minorée. De plus, de nombreuses bourgades où vivaient des communautés juives ne sont pas répertoriées. Nous pencherions personnellement pour un total compris entre 25 et 30 000 individus vers 1860 et quelque peu inférieur à 25 000, en 1881, après que les épidémies de choléra de 1867-1869 aient fait régresser leur nombre.

Tableau 1. — Recensements de 1921 à 1956
DatesPopulation totale arrondie aux centaines inférieuresTunisiens israélites et assimilés (a)Tunisiens israélites (stricto sensu)Tunisiens israélites et assimilés dans l'agglomération de Tunis
06-03-1921 2 094 000 48 436 47 711 22 680
20-04-1926 2 160 000 54 243 53 022 28 143
22-03-1931 2 448 000 56 248 55 340 29 447
12-03-1936 2 608 000 59 485 59 222 32 282
milieu de 1941 - - 68 268 -
01-11-1946 3 230 900 71 543 70 971 42 146
01-02-1956 3 783 000 Les assimilés sont décomptés avec les Musulmans non Tunisiens 57 792 38 958
(a) Les assimilés sont des Israélites étrangers ayant conservé leur statut personnel.
Marocains, originaires du Sud Algérien et surtout libyens. Ces statistiques, nous venons de le voir, ne concernent pratiquement que les sujets tunisiens et assimilés ; or, il existait des Israélites français et étrangers recensés avec la population européenne et pour lesquels nous n'avons que peu de données. En 1921, on comptait probablement quelques milliers de Français et d'Italiens. Les premiers étaient surtout des descendants d'immigrés algériens venus en Tunisie après l'agitation anti-juive de 1898. Les seconds, des Juifs dits Livournais installés depuis de nombreuses générations en Tunisie, citoyens italiens à part entière, contrairement aux quelques Libyens qui n'étaient que protégés italiens. En amalgamant ces ressortissants européens aux sujets tunisiens et compte tenu des probables lacunes du recensement, on pourrait chiffrer l'ensemble des Juifs du pays à 53 ou 54 000 âmes. En 1926, le nombre d'Israélites français s'accroît sensiblement, à la suite de la loi de 1923 qui facilite la naturalisation française des sujets tunisiens, alors que les conditions de 1881 à 1922 étaient des plus restrictives. (165 naturalisations d'Israélites tunisiens durant ces 40 années). De 1922 à 1925, on compte 1 282 naturalisations d'Israélites tunisiens qui viennent renforcer les rangs des Israélites français (3). En raisonnant de la même manière qu'en 1921 on aboutirait à un peu plus de 60 000 personnes pour tout le pays.

enter site Nous disposons, pour 1931, d'estimations moins fragmentaires, concernant les Juifs français et étrangers. Les premiers étaient environ 7 000 après s'être renforcés par 3 742 naturalisations d'Israélites tunisiens de 1926 à 1930 et les seconds 3 000 (4). On pourrait donc estimer à plus de 70 000 le nombre de Juifs vivant en Tunisie.

essay on summer noon La proportion des non tunisiens continue de croître de 1931 à 1936. On compte encore 1 312 naturalisations de 1931 à 1935. De plus, de nombreux Juifs du département de Constantine immigrent en Tunisie après les événements antisémites de 1934, gonflant le nombre de Juifs français. En nous fondant sur les chiffres postérieurs du recensement de 1941, on peut évaluer l'ensemble des Juifs français et étrangers à 16 000 au moins ; ce qui donnerait toutes nationalités confondues, près de 80 000 personnes.

go to link Au milieu de 1941 (5), le recensement ordonné par les autorités de Vichy, donnait quelque 89 700 personnes dont 16 496 Français, 3 208 Italiens, 668 Britanniques, 1 030 autres étrangers et 68 268 tunisiens Israélites. Ce dernier chiffre montre bien que le recensement de 1936 sous-estimait le nombre des Israélites de nationalité tunisienne puisque l'accroissement naturel de 1936 au milieu de 1941 ne dépassait pas 4 300 ou 4 400. Dans cette optique, les Tunisiens auraient dû être environ 63 000. Le décalage est sensible et ne peut s'expliquer que par les incertitudes du recensement de 1936 et dans une mesure moindre par les lacunes de l'état civil.

frederick douglass speeches 4th of july summary writing Nous retombons dans une relative incertitude, lors du recensement de 1946. Le total des Tunisiens est encore minoré, l'excédent des naissances sur les décès du milieu de 1941 à fin 1946 avoisine 4 500. Il n'est guère perturbé par les naturalisations françaises qui se font rares, 260 cas de 1936 à 1946. Les Israélites de nationalité tunisienne auraient dû être environ 73 000, davantage si l'on fait intervenir les naissances non déclarées. Nous évaluerons donc l'ensemble à près de 100 000 personnes en 1946 et à presque 105 000, à la fin des années quarante, à la veille des premiers départs vers Israël.

summary an essay on criticism En 1956, le total des ressortissants tunisiens accuse une nette diminution, comme sans doute celui des autres Israélites. L'émigration vers Israël et la France, consécutive à la création de l'état juif et aux troubles que connaît le pays, commence à vider certaines communautés de leur substance. Organisé à quelques semaines de l'indépendance du pays (20 mars 1956), le recensement s'effectua dans des conditions délicates avec sans doute de nombreux manques. On peut évaluer la totalité des Juifs du pays sans distinction de nationalité à presque 80 000 âmes. Une décolonisation conflictuelle, des difficultés économiques, des problèmes politiques nés de la mise à sac des boutiques juives lors de la guerre des six jours (1967) accéléreront les départs. On comptait 55 000 Juifs en 1961, 35 000 en 1964, 25 000 en 1967 et moins de 7 000 actuellement (6).

II - Comportements démographiques (1881-1956)

dissertation topics Nous avons vu, de 1881 à 1921, la population plus que doubler. Elle doublera encore dans un laps de temps plus court de 1921 à la fin des années quarante. L'accroissement dans le premier temps paraît, en moyenne annuelle, voisin de 20‰ et proche de 23‰-24‰ dans la seconde période. Ces données sont grossières, il faudrait pour les étayer examiner dans le détail les statistiques de l'état civil. Malheureusement, dans ce domaine, les lacunes sont grandes. Les déclarations des naissances et des décès furent certes, rendues obligatoires en 1908 mais dans les faits, beaucoup de naissances n'étaient pas enregistrées et le phénomène plus ou moins atténué persista jusqu'en 1956, surtout dans les régions sous-administrées de l'intérieur et du Sud. Mêmes remarques pour les décès (7), il faut cependant signaler qu'après 1921 tout au moins dans les grandes villes, les autorités communautaires exigeaient un acte officiel avant inhumation.

go Les séries statistiques ne débutent réellement qu'en 1911, ce qui rend difficile l'étude de la période antérieure à 1921. Le total des naissances passe d'environ 1500 en 1911 à presque 2 000 en 1921 ; celui des décès de 700-800 en 1912-13 à plus d'un millier en 1919-21. Ce qui donnerait pour la décennie 1911-21 des taux de natalité voisins de 40‰ et des taux de mortalité supérieurs à 20‰ (8). (Probablement 45‰ et 23‰-24‰ compte tenu des lacunes de l'état civil). Ces coefficients, valables pour les Israélites de nationalité tunisienne peuvent être étendus à l'ensemble de la population juive, puisque à l'époque les Israélites français et étrangers étaient peu nombreux.

pre cal homework help De 1921 à 1939, les naissances chez les Israélites tunisiens stagnent légèrement au-dessous de 2 000, tandis que les décès plafonnent à environ 1000.

writing dissertation Le service tunisien des statistiques à partir de ces chiffres évaluait les taux de la manière suivante (tableau 2) :

Tableau 2. — Taux de natalité et de mortalité chez les Israélites tunisiens (en ‰)
1919-23 1924-28 1929-33 1934-38
Taux de natalité ~37 ~33 ~33 ~30
Taux de mortalité ~22 ~20 ~18 ~17
Taux d'accroissement naturel ~15 ~13 ~15 ~13
Source : Annuaire statistique de la Tunisie, année 1948, p. 32 Ces chiffres sont vraisemblablement à corriger en hausse dans les trois cas. Probablement, les taux d'accroissement naturel dépassent-ils les 16-17‰ durant toute la période. Ils ne seraient pas fondamentalement modifiés, même en intégrant les Juifs aux Tunisiens. Ces derniers, en effet, restaient nettement minoritaires. De plus, pour d'évidentes raisons culturelles et sociales leur natalité et leur mortalité ne pouvaient être inférieures à celle de l'ensemble des Européens pour la période considérée. Soit une natalité voisine de 30‰ et une mortalité d'environ à 15‰, c'est-à-dire des coefficients comparables à ceux des ressortissants tunisiens. Le fait marquant par rapport à l'avant-guerre est l'apparition d'un certain contrôle des naissances ; les taux de natalité passant de 45‰ avant 1914 à un peu plus de 30‰ en 1934-38. Cette fécondité contrôlée intéresse surtout les classes moyennes occidentalisées des grandes villes et reste tempérée par la nécessité reconnue d'avoir au moins un héritier mâle, pour des raisons religieuses et de prestige, dans un milieu encore assez arabisé.

go site Le deuxième phénomène est la baisse progressive de la mortalité, signe d'une amélioration des conditions médicales et sanitaires et qui avait commencé dès avant la grande guerre. Là aussi, les couches moyennes sont les premières concernées par cette amélioration.

college summer writing programs for high school students Les années de la deuxième guerre mondiale ouvrent une période fertile en rebondissements. Les naissances chez les Tunisiens continuent de stagner autour de 2 000 par an, tandis que les décès approchent des 1 400 en 1941-42 et atteignent 2 575 en 1943 (année de l'occupation allemande) (9). Puis de 1944 et jusqu'en 1948, les naissances sautent à 2 800 l'an tandis que les décès qui surpassaient encore 1 500 en 1944 s'abaissent progressivement à moins de 1 000 en 1948.

follow site Ce retour de flamme s'inscrit dans les taux, en tenant compte des lacunes de l'état civil, on peut penser que la natalité comprise entre 31‰ et 34‰ en 1940-43 bondit à plus de 40‰ après cette date et jusqu'à la fin des années quarante. La mortalité passe dans le même temps de 25‰ à 16‰-17‰. Le phénomène n'est pas inexplicable en soi, les années qui suivent l'occupation allemande voient en même temps qu'une certaine amélioration alimentaire et médicale, une vision plus optimiste de la vie. Ce qui est curieux en revanche, c'est la longue durée de ce regain de vitalité qui semble aller bien au-delà d'un simple rattrapage. Après 1950, alors que beaucoup de jeunes, d'indigents, de croyants exaltés, en somme les éléments les plus prolifiques, avaient déjà quitté le pays, la tendance à une forte fécondité persiste. En 1953, année de très faible émigration avec, en conséquence, une population relativement stable, on peut se livrer à quelques exercices de statistiques. On enregistre 2 040 naissances et 679 décès pour une population tunisienne voisine de 70 000 âmes. D'où, avec quelques correctifs dus aux défaillances de l'état civil, une natalité voisine de 32‰-33‰ et une mortalité proche de 10‰ après la vulgarisation des antibiotiques. Les coefficients des années suivantes ne sont pas significativement inférieurs (10). Puis, à partir de 1960, les chiffres font défaut.

Ces faits paraissent indiquer une remontée de la fécondité même au sein des éléments occidentalisés peu ou prou malthusiens. Mais à quoi l'attribuer ? Notons toutefois que cette reprise de fécondité semble s'intégrer à un mouvement plus vaste qui concerne les populations du monde occidental après 1945. Le modèle européen aurait-il aussi joué dans ce domaine ? Chez les pauvres déjà non malthusiens, la remontée probable de la fécondité est peut-être en corrélation avec les efforts des organisations juives, au lendemain de la guerre, au niveau de l'encadrement médical. Avec comme conséquence un recul de la mortinatalité, des accidents de grossesse et vraisemblablement de la stérilité.


Les phénomènes les plus caractéristiques de la période française paraissent résider dans une croissance démographique révolutionnaire. En 75 ans, la population juive fait plus que quadrupler, passant de quelque 2% de la population totale du pays vers 1860-80, à plus de 3% vers 1945-50. Il reste que les taux annuels d'accroissement que nous avons chiffrés à plus de 20‰ de 1881 à 1946 paraissent légèrement supérieurs à ce que montre dans le détail l'examen de ces mêmes taux. Il faut donc probablement admettre l'existence d'un solde migratoire légèrement mais significativement positif. Ce que confirme d'ailleurs la rumeur publique.

La phase 1881-1921 est celle d'une forte fécondité tandis que s'abaisse la mortalité et que s'espacent les épidémies. Après 1921 apparaît une forme modérée de malthusianisme socialement sélective, mais comme la mortalité continue de décroître, la croissance démographique reste aussi forte que par le passé. Situation de transition, qui aurait dû à terme aboutir à un plafonnement de la mortalité et à une chute de la fécondité au fur et à mesure que progressait le processus d'occidentalisation. Le retournement de tendance après 1943 vient brouiller les cartes et l'exode de la communauté à partir de 1949-50 met un point final à l'objet de notre étude sans que nous ayons pu faire totalement cadrer la situation démographique de l'après-guerre avec nos schémas socio-culturels habituels.

Notes :
  1. On distinguait parmi les Européens, les Français, Italiens, Anglo-Maltais et autres étrangers, chez les indigènes les Tunisiens musulmans, les Tunisiens Israélites et les Musulmans non tunisiens. Nos chiffres proviennent des Annuaires statistiques de la Tunisie de 1908 à 1980.
  2. Jean Ganiage. « La population de la Tunisie vers 1860 ». Population, 5, 1966.
  3. Il ? avait d'autres modes d'acquisition de la nationalité française, mariage, option etc.. Les bénéficiaires en furent beaucoup moins nombreux. A noter le recul du mouvement des naturalisations au début des années trente, né d'une double réticence, celle des Juifs à abandonner leur statut mosaïque, celle des pouvoirs publics, plus ou moins influencée par le climat antisémite de l'époque cf. Lettre de la résidence générale de France en Tunisie en date du 2 juillet 1936 à Mr Cittanova, vice-président du parti radical socialiste en Tunisie, archives Alliance Israélite Universelle II C6 Tunisie.
  4. Cf. Maurice Eisenbeth. Les Juifs d'Afrique du Nord, démographie et onomastique Alger, 1936, p. 19.
  5. Cf Robert Attal. « Tunisien Jewry during the last twenty years ». The Jewish journal of sociology II, 1, juin 1960, 4-15.
  6. Estimation des responsables communautaires de 1956 à 1980. Elles paraissent plausibles, sinon probables. A noter, dans un ordre d'idée voisin, la part croissante de l'agglomération de Tunis, fruit de l'attraction qu'exerçait la capitale. L'examen du tableau 1 montre que 47% des Juifs indigènes y vivaient en 1921, 52% en 1926-31, 54% en 1936, près de 60% en 1946 plus de 66% en 1956. Certes les recensements minorent le nombre des Juifs du reste du pays, mais si l'on tenait compte des Juifs français et étrangers surtout regroupés à Tunis, on recueillerait des pourcentages plus élevés que ceux que nous avons isolés.
  7. Des chercheurs furent frappés en compulsant les registres municipaux de ne pas voir figurer des individus de leur connaissance qu’ils savaient nés telle à telle année. A Gafsa, entre les deux guerres les taux de natalités et de mortalité répertoriés sont respectivement de 20‰ et 10‰ chiffres très au-dessous des moyennes nationales et probablement minorés par un enregistrement défectueux. Cf H. Cornet «Les Juifs de Gafsa », Cahiers de Tunisie, 2e trimestre, 10, 1955.
  8. Sauf en 1911 où une épidémie de choléra les fait grimper à plus de 30‰ et durant la guerre de 1914-18 où ils dépassent 25‰ (détérioration des conditions alimentaires et médicales).
  9. A noter la montée régulière de la mortalité durant les années de guerre (1940-43) pour les mêmes raisons qu'en 1914-18. En 1943 le travail forcé des hommes dans les camps allemands va entraîner un certain tassement de la natalité (moins de 30‰) tandis que la mortalité grimpe à plus de 36‰ conséquence des difficultés alimentaires et des bombardements.
  10. Il faut signaler que les Israélites français et étrangers culturellement proches de leurs coreligionnaires tunisiens n'ont certainement pas échappé à ce mouvement de fond qu'était la remontée de la natalité.
Source :
Taïeb Jacques. Evolution et comportement démographiques des Juifs de Tunisie sous le protectorat français (1881-1956).
In: Population, 37e année, n°4-5, 1982 pp. 952-958.

  1. Histoire de la Tunisie contemporaine, de Jean-François MARTIN
  2. L'émigration des français de Tunisie, de Maurice WOLKOWITSCH
  3. Les Italiens en Tunisie, de Henri DE MONTETY
  4. Le recensement de 1906 en Algérie et en Tunisie, de Augustin BERNARD
  5. Les données du problème tunisien, de Henri DE MONTETY
  6. Evolution et comportement démographiques des Juifs de Tunisie sous le protectorat français (1881-1956), de Jacques TAIEB
  7. Juifs du Maghreb : onomastique et langue, une composante berbère ?, de Jacques TAIEB